होम Modern Asian Studies The Japanese Thread: A Life in the U. S. Foreign Serviceby John K. Emmerson;Japan's Political...

The Japanese Thread: A Life in the U. S. Foreign Serviceby John K. Emmerson;Japan's Political Revolution under MacArthur: A Participant's Accountby Justin Williams,

यह पुस्तक आपको कितनी अच्छी लगी?
फ़ाइल की गुणवत्ता क्या है?
पुस्तक की गुणवत्ता का मूल्यांकन करने के लिए यह पुस्तक डाउनलोड करें
डाउनलोड की गई फ़ाइलों की गुणवत्ता क्या है?
खंड:
15
साल:
1981
भाषा:
english
पत्रिका:
Modern Asian Studies
DOI:
10.2307/312098
फ़ाइल:
PDF, 153 KB
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आप पुस्तक समीक्षा लिख सकते हैं और अपना अनुभव साझा कर सकते हैं. पढ़ूी हुई पुस्तकों के बारे में आपकी राय जानने में अन्य पाठकों को दिलचस्पी होगी. भले ही आपको किताब पसंद हो या न हो, अगर आप इसके बारे में ईमानदारी से और विस्तार से बताएँगे, तो लोग अपने लिए नई रुचिकर पुस्तकें खोज पाएँगे.
1

Six Lives Six Deaths: Portraits from Modern Japanby R. J. Lifton; S. Katō; M. R. Reich

साल:
1981
भाषा:
english
फ़ाइल:
PDF, 148 KB
2

Coomaraswamyby Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy; Roger Lipsey

साल:
1981
भाषा:
english
फ़ाइल:
PDF, 128 KB
The Japanese Thread: A Life in the U. S. Foreign Service by John K. Emmerson; Japan's
Political Revolution under MacArthur: A Participant's Account by Justin Williams,
Review by: Michael P. Hayes
Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 15, No. 2 (1981), pp. 344-347
Published by: Cambridge University Press
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REVIEWS

344

compared with the translation, differences of nuance between the two are to
be found especially in Part Two. One cannot complain about this, however,
for the words spoken in Part Two are just too colloquial to be translated
literally into English. The energy and diligence which Mr. Gangloff has put
into the task of translation must be commended.
Tokai University

KYOZO SATO

The Japanese Thread: A Life in the U.S. Foreign Service. By JOHN K.
EMM ERSON. Holt, Rinehart and Winston: New York, I978.
Japan's Political Revolutionunder MacArthur: A Participant'sAccount. By
SR. University of Georgia Press, I979.
JUSTIN WILLIAMS,
These books are the accounts of two Americans who between them were in
excellent positions to observe the tumultous events in Japanese history before,
during and after the war. Though differing in style and scope, they are in
many ways complementary. J; ohn K. Emmerson was a foreign service officer
in Japan before the war, served in the China-Burma-India theatre during it,
and afterwardswas attached for a short time to the Office of Political Adviser
to MacArthur.Justin Williams was a member of Government Section, SCAP,
throughout the occupation ofJapan.
Emmerson's book is the more personal account and covers the greater
period of time. He entered the foreign service in 1935 and arrived in Japan
shortly before the 26 February Incident of 1936. Thus from the American
Embassy in Tokyo he could see the gradual drift into war between the two
countries. Apart from a spell in Taiwan as American consul from June 1939
to March 1940, Emmerson was in Tokyo until October I94I when he returned home shortly before the outbreak of war. Thereafter he saw service at
the U.S. Embassy in Peru where his duties were to help the Peruvian government deal with its citizens of Japanese descent who were seen as a threat from
the south. In December I942 Emmerson was transferred to India and
assigned to General Stilwell's headquarters as a political adviser. From I944
he was in North Burma as 'supervisorin charge of all psychological warfare
activities in the area and adviser in civil affairs matters'. Later in the year
(October) he became part of the 'Dixie Mission', the U.S. Army Observer
Group, which was sent to Yenan to meet the Chinese Communist leaders.
There Emmerson met Mao Tse-tung, Chou En-lai and Chu Teh, and
experienced the 'utopian' atmosphere of the Communist enclave. His main
duties in Yenan were concerned with the Japanese there and he met the
Japanese Communist leader Nosaka Sanzo. Emmerson's enthusiastic reports
from here were later to become ammunition for his anti-Communist inquisitors in the 1950s. He stayed in Yenan until December of 1944 and made one
more short trip there in January of 1945 before returning to Washington.
At the end of the war, Emmerson was the first member of the State Department's Political Adviser's Office and only the second foreign service officer to
reach Japan. He was there from September 945 to January 19January 1946

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REVIEWS

345

under George Atcheson, the Political Adviser to MacArthur. His most
famous experience during this period was an interview of the Japanese
Communist leaders, Shiga, Tokuda, etc. (who had been imprisoned for a
number of years) conducted by E. H. Norman and himself. This also was
later to be used against him when he was being interrogated for possible
Communist sympathies during the McCarthy era. Apart from this, Emmerson's main duty at the Office of Political Adviser was to furnish SCAP with
a weekly report on the activities of political parties in Japan. He did this with
a great amount of dedication, and researchers using the records of the State
Department in the National Archives, Washington D.C. will appreciate the
value of these reports. He displayed a wide knowledge of the re-emerging
Japanese political scene which could only have been gained from many hours
attending party meetings, interviewing politicians and reading large amounts
of political literature. After his departure from Japan at the end of January
1946, these reports lost much of their perception and detail.
Emmerson's next foreign posting was Moscow where he lived for two years
from 1947 to I949 and so could observe Cold War tension from the inside.
From here he returned to Washington and the McCarthy period. It was on
2 January 1952 that he received a letter informing him that he was being
charged with violating the established standards of loyalty and security. Thus
the Loyalty Security Board, with Emmerson in the dock met in February
1952. Although eventually cleared by this board, Emmerson soon realized
that he was prohibited from assignment to the Far East and was to remain so
for sixteen years. Moreover this was not to be the end of his period under
suspicion. In I954 his security file was again reviewed by the State Department. In I957 he was up before the Senate congressional committee which
questioned his relationship to E. H. Norman, then Canadian ambassador to
Egypt, and went over the subjects of his first hearing. These Senate investigations were followed by the suicide in Cairo in April I957 of E. H. Norman,
and a great outcry against the 'disgraceful harassment' by the subcommittee.
Emmerson's loyalty was yet again brought into question when it was
suggested that he be designated U.S. minister to Nigeria shortly before its
independence. In 1962 his appointment as the first U.S. ambassador to
Tanganyika was turned down by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on
the grounds that he would not stand up to the Communists there. This did,
however, mean that as a consolation he was permitted to return to Japan in
July 1962 as deputy chief of mission and minister to Japan under Ambassador
Reischauer. In the sixteen years since he had last been in Japan, Emmerson
had served with distinction in the Soviet Union, Pakistan, Lebanon, France,
Nigeria and the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Yet he had been
banished from that part of the world where his training would have been
most useful. He was to spend the next four years in Japan until his retirement
from the foreign service in 1966.
TheJapaneseThreadis a very readable book which highlights well many of
the important events in American foreign relations during the middle third
of the twentieth century. Emmerson writes with style and simplicity, and,
though he does not add very much to the facts as we know them already, his
experiences give the events additional dimensions. Particularly interesting

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346

REVIEWS

are his impressions of prewar Tokyo, his journey to Yenan, his description of
postwar Japan and his prolonged inquisition during the 1950s. He obviously
draws much of his material from diaries and reports made at the time, so we
are subjected to only a minimum of declarations from hindsight. Only when
describing his interrogation during the McCarthy period does Emmersonquite rightly-attempt
self-justification. Elsewhere he describes what he saw,
his impressions at the time and his feelings for the future with an admirable
sense of balance. This book should be read by anyone interested in American
foreign relations in the recent past and especially in policy towards Japan
from the prewar years.
American involvement in Japan has never been greater than during the
occupation years. In a period of under seven years the United States, in the
name of the Allied Powers, carried out reforms in all aspects of Japanese life
aimed at extinguishing militarism and fostering democracy. For almost six
years of this time Douglas MacArthur, as Supreme Commander for the
Allied Powers, was the overseer of this 'social revolution'. Yet so far there has
been only a limited amount of scholarly work on these great changes in Japan
and even less on the men who, under MacArthur, initiated them. Thus a
work by a key figure in Government Section, SCAP, can only be welcomed.
From July 1946 Justin Williams was the head of Government Section Legislative Division (in February 1948 this became Parliamentary and Political
Division) and he continued in that position until the end of the occupation.
He had arrived in Japan in mid-September 1945 from Manila as a member of
Military Government Section of MacArthur's headquarters. He was thus
present at the very beginning of the organization of SCAP, the rejection of
plans for direct military government and the subsequent creation of special
staff sections, such as Civil Information, Education, Government, and
Economic and Scientific out of the original Military Government Section
from Manila.
Unlike Emmerson's, this is not a purely personal account of participation
in important events. In the preface Williams says that he had it in mind from
the beginning 'to write the story of the political side of the daring and ambitious experiment in social engineering'. He is therefore more systematic in
his approach, relying less on subjective impressions. He begins the book with
some explanation of American post-surrender policy, the organization of
GHQ, SCAP, and the condition of defeated Japan. He then concentrates on
Government Section and the democratization of Japan. A chapter each is
devoted to discussion in some detail of the roles of chief of Government
Section, Brig. Gen. Courtney Whitney, and his deputy Col. Charles L.
Kades. A further chapter gives profiles of many of the members of Section,
such as Lt. Col. Milo Rowell, Comdr. A. R. Hussey, Comdr. Guy J. Swope,
Lt. Col. Pieter Roest and Maj. Frank Rizzo. One of the most important acts
of Government Section was its revision of the Japanese Constitution and
Williams describes the drafting procedure, the attempts made to justify it,
and the reaction to it in Japan. He then concentrates on the object of his own
division which was the restructuring of the Japanese Diet, its supervision
and liaison between it and the various sections of SCAP. He gives his impressions of the development of the Diet's democratic potential in particular the

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REVIEWS

347

growing responsibility of the members, despite the few violent incidents which
he describes. The main responsibility of his division was the carrying out of
SCAP policy in all matters pertaining to the establishment of parliamentary
government.
Returning to the broader area of occupation policy, Williams makes an
interesting attempt to refute the theory that from around 1948 the occupation
underwent a 'reverse course' when the United States shifted from the democratization of Japan to the rebuilding of the country in order to contain
Communism. On at least one point (that of economic recovery) Williams'
argument is unconvincing. In 1945 the basic directive to SCAP had insisted
that 'you will not assume any responsibility for the economic rehabilitation
of Japan or the strengthening of the Japanese economy'. Yet by 1948 SCAP
had been ordered to impose a rigorous programme of economic stabilization.
In other respects too the 'reverse course' theory stands up far better than
Williams makes out. Nevertheless his opinions are interesting and deserve
to be heard.
This book is not an attempt to contradict or undermine the works of other
members of SCAP such as Whitney. Throughout Williams is loyal to his
chiefs and his views do not diverge greatly from the official opinion on the
occupation. Mercifully though he does not reach the heights of adoration that
Whitney did in 'MacArthur: His Rendezvous With History'. His final
chapter deals with MacArthur the Statesman and while his opinion is overwhelmingly favourable, it is tempered with some sense of balance.
The great value of this work is the insight it gives into the workings of
Government Section. Particularly interesting are the profiles of its members.
These men had previously been merely only names on the roster but now, at
least partly, their characters and motivations have been sketched for us.
Williams admittedly takes a somewhat conservative stance, especially when
describing members such as T. A. Bisson, but he still adds much to our knowledge of these men. Thus his account is a welcome addition to research on
occupation history.
University of Sheffield

MICHAEL

P. HAYES

Six Lives Six Deaths: Portraitsfrom ModernJapan. By R. J. LIFTON, S. KAT 6,
and M. R. REICH. Yale University Press: New Haven, I979. Pp. 302.

This book is not without its problems. It is essentially a collection of six
biographies of six important men; Nogi Maresuke (1849-1912), Mori Ogai
(1862-1922),

Nakae Ch6min (I847-I901),

Kawakami Hajime (i879-1946),

Masamune Hakucho (1879-1966), and, perhaps inevitably, Mishima Yukio
(I925-1970). Although we now have full length biographies of three of these
men (Ogai, Kawakami, and Mishima), there can be no doubt that it is an
extremely valuable book, containing much information that cannot be found
elsewhere in English, nor in such a convenient form. There is, however, an
introductory chapter, entitled 'Approach', which falls into two distinct parts,

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